Japan is a country with one of the highest density of population of the world. If we also consider that over 60% of the country is made up of mountains and that it barely has resources (energy, mining and cultivable land), we can conclude that the country has not had facilities for economic development. However, the ability to work and the organisation of its population have been key issues for Japan to currently be an economic reference and one of the world’s most advanced countries, whereas others with far more resources have been unable to reach its welfare and development level. This book reviews the most highlighted aspects of the Japanese economy, the different stages of its economic development. It also approaches the main aspects of its foreign trade and ends with an analysis of the Japanese business structure.